Diesel turbo systems such as the ubiquitous turbocharger are "forced induction systems" which will allow an engine to put out a greater amount of horsepower without adding superfluous weight. These systems increase the available amount of air and fuel in an engine by compressing it before it enters the cylinder, which facilitates the combustion process by providing a larger amount of fuel which can be combusted with each stroke.
The Benefits of Installing a Diesel Turbocharger
Many turbochargers possess what is known as a waste gate that senses boost pressure, which allows exhaust to skip over the turbine blade, reducing necessary size of turbocharger needed to minimize lag while simultaneously preventing the blade from spinning to rapidly at higher engine speeds. The waste gate will allow the blades to slow down when pressure exceeds its safe operating limit. They even work better at high altitudes because the air is less dense, and therefore is easier to pump. Turbochargers typically use fluid or ball bearings to support the turbine shaft. These aren't just your run of the mill, every day ball bearings; they are super-precisely designed and made of the most advanced materials in order to keep up with the speed and temperature needs of turbochargers. Some engines even have two part Diesel Turbo Systems, with a turbocharger of two different sizes. The smaller one rotates more rapidly, minimizing lag, as the larger assumes the responsibilities of providing boost at high engine speeds.